Step-by-step instructions for applying for sick leave for pregnancy and childbirth. When and how is a certificate of incapacity issued?

For how long are sick leave issued?

Women are given a long period of rest during pregnancy and childbirth, when the timing becomes quite serious. This is a general rule that applies to everyone.

Specific numbers have the following description:

  1. Upon reaching 30 weeks, when the pregnancy is singleton.
  2. 28 weeks - when three or more children are born.

The duration of the certificate of incapacity for work in the case of pregnancy and childbirth is written in the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, in article 255.

The legislators considered that given such deadlines, the citizen would have serious difficulties in performing her work duties. Preparing for the birth of a baby takes a woman’s strength and health.

But there are opportunities to book your vacation earlier. For example, during the first trimester of pregnancy. The baby's development needs to be monitored. The main thing is the presence of solid and valid reasons. The doctor and the employer must understand that ignoring them only leads to negative consequences.

Expectant mothers are advised to listen to any pain and what leads to discomfort. If you respond to problems in time, it is easier to get rid of complications later.

No one has the right to refuse to issue sick leave certificates. The rule applies throughout the entire pregnancy. It doesn't matter what time frame we're talking about.

Duration of sick leave for pregnancy and subsequent childbirth

As mentioned above, there are extraordinary cases in which complications occur after childbirth, or a woman becomes pregnant with twins or triplets.
Naturally, legislation regulates these cases in favor of women. The total duration of sick leave or leave for pregnancy and subsequent childbirth is 140 days. So that the employee can be well prepared for such an important moment, these 140 days are divided into two equal parts of 70 days before and after childbirth.

The benefit that is paid in this case will be calculated and paid, without reference to 140 days.

If a woman becomes pregnant with two or more fetuses, then the legislator sets a longer period for her to prepare for childbirth and after it. Another 84 days are added to 140 days. Moreover, before giving birth, she leaves 84 days before, and after the birth of children she receives 110 days. That is, after childbirth, if it was successful, such an employee will have more time to rest.

The benefit is calculated and paid, and it will not differ from that which is due for sick leave of 140 days. The most recent case is when an employee needs additional time in the healthcare facility after giving birth (for example, if she had a cesarean section). In this case, labor legislation provides for the addition of another 16 days to the total period of 140 or 194 days. In this case, the benefit due to the employee must be accrued and paid without any restrictions, but its calculation will be tied to the total sick leave of 140 days.

Based on this approach of the legislator, any woman can find out how many days she is entitled to before and after giving birth.

If an employee does not want to return immediately from sick leave, but wants to rest a little more, the law provides for leave for such an employee, which can be used after returning from sick leave, or before going on maternity leave. It is immediately necessary to make a reservation that the vacation payments that are due for such vacation are not included in the benefits that are calculated and paid by the employer. Accruals occur before a woman goes on sick leave and remains on it after giving birth.

Such rest refers to the rights of women, which are established by the current labor legislation, so it is important to understand that it is not an obligation to go on such rest, but it is better to take advantage of this right.

It is important to know that the employer cannot limit the number of days of sick leave that a woman in labor is entitled to before admission to the hospital, as well as after childbirth. It will last as long as established by current labor legislation. The same must be said about the benefit that an employee is entitled to in connection with her pregnancy and subsequent birth of a child.

If a pregnant woman is subjected to any pressure from her employer, then she should be aware of her right to protection not only from the labor code, but also from various government bodies, which may impose penalties on the administration and head of the enterprise for such actions, and restore women's rights.

Who has the right to give sick leave?

When detecting the first deviations and feeling unwell, women should contact a gynecologist. After that they register. The services of private and public clinics are equally suitable. The main thing is that the condition is monitored by a doctor with sufficiently high qualifications. The form of observation and other features are not paid attention to.

It is required to undergo examination by doctors of other specialties, including:

  • Cardiologist.
  • Immunologist.
  • Ophthalmologist.
  • Laura.
  • Dentist.
  • Endocrinologist.
  • Service with a gynecologist

Gynecologists are doctors who monitor pregnancy throughout the entire period, from the initial stages until the moment the child is born. Even when there are no complications, visits to doctors are necessary. The responsibilities of such doctors include constant monitoring of the patients' condition.

Here are some of the reasons why local doctors most often issue sick leave:

  1. Pathologies associated with fetal development.
  2. Problems with uterine tone.
  3. Complaints due to increased blood pressure.
  4. The appearance of edema.
  5. Deterioration in health.
  6. The occurrence of infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
  7. Threat associated with termination of pregnancy.
  8. Toxicosis.

Even if the complaint does not relate to gynecology, it should not be ignored. It's better to just tell your doctor about your current condition. Based on the results of the conversation, he writes out a referral to a doctor of a certain profile. Next, he identifies the level of malaise and issues a certificate of incapacity for work.

When a woman is not yet registered

Children quickly pick up problems if left unchecked. The weakness of a small body and small size can end badly for pregnancy in general.

Therefore, constant monitoring throughout the first trimester becomes a mandatory requirement for everyone. The gynecologist may offer to undergo treatment in a hospital setting.

But sometimes it happens that expectant mothers do not have time to think about registering. Then you shouldn’t refuse sick leave. The procedure just has a few additional nuances:

  1. The first stage is to call a doctor at home to report how you are feeling.
  2. After this, the patient is taken to the hospital.
  3. An examination is performed on a gynecological chair.
  4. Registration at the place of residence is completed automatically when information regarding pregnancy is confirmed.

If she has the strength and opportunity, the woman herself can attend an appointment with a local therapist. From him they receive a referral for examination by a gynecologist. Then they also register. Even the lack of registration documents is not a reason to refuse to provide medical care.

In the early stages of toxicosis

How to go on sick leave during pregnancy with toxicosis? If a woman feels unwell in the early stages of pregnancy and is seriously afraid for her health and the life of the child, she needs to go to the antenatal clinic with her local doctor and explain what is happening . A gynecologist is obliged to issue a sick leave if there is reason to believe that the reason may affect the positive outcome of the pregnancy.

This practice is quite common and often gynecologists themselves remind their patients about the opportunity to be treated in a medical institution. Therefore, if you are registered, you should not have any problems getting sick leave .

The doctor issues you a sick leave certificate and sends you for treatment to the appropriate institution.

It’s a completely different matter when the expectant mother has not yet managed to register.

If a woman is not registered

The earliest stages of pregnancy are rightfully considered the most dangerous..

Any negative impact on the mother’s body can be passed on to the baby and, due to the fact that he is still too small and weak, the pregnancy will end in failure, barely having time to begin.

Therefore, gynecologists closely monitor their patients throughout the first trimester of pregnancy and often offer to stay in the hospital.

But if the expectant mother has not yet managed to register with the antenatal clinic, this is not a reason to think that she is not entitled to sick leave. How to take sick leave during pregnancy?

You can get treatment by calling a doctor at home and telling him about how you feel unwell. You must be taken to the hospital and examined in a gynecological chair. If the fact of pregnancy is confirmed, then you are automatically registered at your place of residence and sent for treatment with a sick leave certificate.

If your strength allows, you can come to an appointment with your local therapist and, having received a referral from him to be examined by a gynecologist, also go on sick leave.

The lack of registration documents is not a reason to deny a pregnant woman proper medical care.


Sick leave during pregnancy is issued for the same period as standard sick leave for other employees. Only your doctor can determine the amount of time needed for treatment.

About the duration

The terms of sick leave for pregnant women and ordinary documents are no different from each other, they remain the same. Only a doctor can help determine exactly how long it will take to restore health.

The maximum validity period of one sick leave issued by a doctor is 15 days. This rule also applies to workers of any category, not just pregnant women. The duration of rest can be reduced if a dangerous condition is not identified. Such actions will not be illegal.

Duration of sick leave

Maximum number of days

The medical commission has the authority to release the expectant mother from work for a maximum period of up to 10 months , if the condition of the pregnant woman so requires.

Minimum number of days

The standard minimum duration of sick leave not only for pregnant women, but also for all categories of workers is 3 calendar days . If the doctor believes that this period is enough for a pregnant woman to return to normal, he can issue a certificate of incapacity for work for the next three dates.

In case of hospitalization

If it is determined that the condition is dangerous for the mother and baby, a special commission is convened. But the decision of such commissions remains valid only if treatment is carried out not at home, but in a hospital. One of the important conditions is hospitalization of the patient. You cannot do without documentation according to all the rules.

In the case when the first period of treatment has expired, and residual effects still persist, doctors can decide to extend the rest time. It is often advised to move to a sanatorium for better care. This is a legal decision that cannot be challenged. The duration of treatment is 24 days.


How long can a doctor open? (in the clinic)

In accordance with the general rules for issuing sick leave, such documents are issued for a maximum period of 15 days .

These rules apply to both women in an interesting position and other employees.

The attending physician may prescribe a slightly shorter period of sick leave if your condition requires this.

During hospitalization

If your condition raises concerns for the life and health of the child, then sick leave for pregnant women can be extended by decision of a convened medical commission . Such a decision is valid only if the woman is hospitalized and is being treated not at home, but in a medical facility.

How many days is sick leave during pregnancy? Upon completion of treatment, doctors may insist on extending the sick leave period in favor of treatment in a sanatorium. Such a decision is legal and cannot be challenged. In this case, treatment is extended for a period of 24 days .

As a rule, sanatorium-resort treatment is prescribed in order to protect the expectant mother from stress at work and to give her the opportunity to accumulate strength for recovery.

Regarding the extension of sick leave

The general rules remain the same here; in each situation, only a number of nuances need to be taken into account.

When visiting a clinic.

If a patient turns to representatives of a hospital facility for sick leave and its extension, it means that the treatment itself takes place at home. The attending physician in such a situation does not have the right to make decisions regarding extension alone.

A medical commission will have to be convened to decide whether the patient needs an extension. The conclusion about the condition is made based on the study of several factors: doctor’s notes, documents and examination of the patient herself. After the commission makes a decision, the period of sick leave can be extended to a maximum of 10 months.

In the case of a hospital.

The examination is carried out when the first period of sick leave ends. Then they decide what kind of help from doctors is needed next. In a hospital setting, sick leave stay is increased by no more than 10 days.

After sanatorium-resort follow-up treatment.

Here the decision is made by the management of the institution itself. This is necessary if there is no improvement. Even after the sanatorium treatment is over. The law sets a maximum period for such situations - 24 days.

The procedure for issuing certificates of temporary release from work

For all workplaces, a mandatory requirement is to undergo certification and special checks. The purpose of the development is to determine the level of harmfulness and complexity of the situation in a particular place.

In some professions there are premiums for harmfulness. All directions fall under the rule. Even those where the factors are weak enough to damage health, but are dangerous during pregnancy. Release from work is the right of every citizen.

Refusal is illegal, and in the first days of the condition. Especially if conditions are created that can harm the mother and unborn child. Exemption is acceptable for the entire pregnancy, until the birth itself.

For such situations, the procedure will be as follows:

  1. A certificate listing harmful factors is issued to women by occupational safety engineers or human resources departments.
  2. After this, they contact a gynecologist, from a public or private clinic. The doctor confirms the state of pregnancy and gives a referral for examination by a medical commission. Only after passing all the examinations is the citizen registered. It is recommended to contact the institution at your place of permanent residence; problems often arise when interacting with commercial services.
  3. To undergo an examination by a medical commission, a woman must have a certificate from her place of work, a passport and an outpatient card, a referral. It is after this appointment that an official exemption from work is issued.
  4. The received certificate is transferred to the personnel department of the enterprise with which the employment agreement was signed.

How should a healthcare provider fill it out?

The medical worker enters information into two forms, one of which is given to the pregnant woman, and the other remains in the medical institution.

  1. In the upper right corner of the sheet, a tick is placed in the “primary” or “duplicate” field (if issued to replace a lost or damaged one).
  2. Enter the name of the organization that issued the sheet.
  3. Enter the address of the medical institution: name of the locality, street (without the word “street”), house number (in number); if there is a need to indicate the building, its number is written next to it, separated by an oblique line placed in a separate box. Next, if necessary, enter the apartment number through the box.
  4. The date of issue of sick leave is indicated (day, month, year in numbers).
  5. The full name of the pregnant woman is written down (according to the passport details).
  6. In the “place of work” column, write the name of the organization where the woman works, for example FANTASYA LLC (if the employer is an individual, instead of the name of the organization, indicate his last name and initials).
  7. The medical history number is recorded, which corresponds to the patient’s medical record number.
  8. The reason for incapacity for work is indicated in the form of a two-digit code “05” (which means leave under the Labor and Employment Regulations).
  9. A check mark is placed in the cell marked with the letter “f” (female gender).
  10. A check mark is placed either in the “main” column, or in the “part-time” column (if o, the number of the sheet for the main job is indicated), or “registered with government agencies of the employment service.”
  11. The “date 1” field is filled in, which indicates the predicted date of birth (day, month, year in numbers). It is calculated by adding 70 calendar days to the date of issue of the sheet.
  12. A note is made that the pregnant woman was registered before 12 weeks of pregnancy in the “yes” square. If it is later than this period, the square “no” is indicated.
  13. In the “Exemption from work” table, in the “from what date” column, enter the date of issue of the sheet.
    In the “by what date” column is the date, which is calculated by adding 140 days to the date of issue (for pregnant women with one child) and 194 days in the case of multiple pregnancies. The position of the doctor is indicated (abbreviations are acceptable, for example, AKUSH GIN), his surname, initials and signature. The position of the chairman of the medical commission (for example, PRED VC), his last name, initials and signature are registered.
  14. The “start work” field indicates the date following the one indicated in the “by what date” column.
  15. In the column “certificate of incapacity for work issued,” the surname and initials of the specialist who issued the sick leave are entered. The surname and initials are separated by a space, for example KUZMINA OM.
  16. In the “signature” field, the sick leave is endorsed by the specialist who issued the document.
  17. The document is certified with seals in specially designated places.

The main data is duplicated in the spine of the certificate of incapacity:

  • “primary” sheet or “duplicate”;
  • full name of the pregnant woman;
  • her place of work with o or “part-time”;
  • surname, initials of the doctor;
  • medical history number;
  • date of issue of sick leave.

The pregnant woman signs in the “receipt receipt” field when receiving the document in hand.

Possible grounds for sick leave

Without a timely visit to a therapist, you will not be able to receive a referral to doctors of another profile. This is relevant in the presence of symptoms that are not related to the pathologies of pregnancy itself.

Colds and flu

Acute respiratory colds (ARI, ARVI) are a problem that pregnant women face most often, like other people. Pregnancy has a particularly acute effect on immunity and contributes to its decline. Complications arise, including due to the ban on taking certain types of medications during pregnancy.

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